# Precision leveling

## How is precision leveling?

This method of determining height based on the application of the beam of sight, located in a horizontal plane. In Fig.1 shows the process technology.

technologies:

Let nvarng section MN there are several segments. The device is installed on points 1, 2 and 3 (called stations). Stations are defined as counts, why use two strips:

- back;
- front P.
- h - the amount of excess within one station - will be equal to the difference of readings of readings.

NM НN - elevation values at points M and N. НN Height equal to the height plus the sum of NM and h for all stations. To improve the accuracy of measurement results are performed in two directions - forward and reverse.

## Why high-precision geometric leveling the amendment provides for the transition to normal heights?

the Idea underlying the establishment of the height of a point by adding excess, is complicated by the fact that proven surface at different points of the earth's surface are not parallel. We illustrate this by figure 2.

the Rails are set for vertical lines (this is done using levels). Vertical direction at the stations are not parallel to the vertical directions of the rails. Beam level at each location of measurement is fixed pependicular to the vertical. Proven surface that pass through the station and pickets, thus, will not be parallel. Fig.2 illustrates how the results are due to the way in which the leveling occurs. If you reverse the profile OL the excess over L will be equal to the sum of h at the stations, that is, ustanny rovenna surfaces, which are points A and L. If you change the path of leveling and go through It, that is the way okl inclusive, then the measured excess will be OK (this follows from the fact that KL - level the surface). The excess between any two points of this surface is equal to 0. The third measured value is exceeded can be obtained, paving the way leveling OML (point M).

the Results of these three measurements are not equal because of rovenna not parallel surfaces. Measurement uncertainty is eliminated through the introduction of a system of normal heights. Reckon the normal to apcob distance from quasigeoid to the point on the earth's surface indicate a normal height. Accurate operation includes the introduction of the relevant amendment, the formula for calculation given in the standard documentation.

## Precision leveling firma OOO “the Guild of Engineering" performs for different purposes

Measurements of high precision are required when tracking over the depressions and deformations of individual buildings or process equipment. This is done using the bookmark marks. The area under study is the construction of laid brand. At a sufficient distance from the observation object laid control marks. Thereon and monitored the state of the object through the measurement of exceedances. The measurements are conducted with a certain periodicity. To change the results of the calculations to judge stability or instability of the ongoing process of land subsidence, the availability of roll in the equipment.

**Precision leveling firma OOO “the Guild of Engineering”** performs for different purposes, achieving accuracy of fractions of a millimetre on a 1 km course. the **Precision leveling (from 8100 for the object)** and excellent quality of work can satisfy the most demanding customer.