we All know the place of cartography in the modern world. Cards accompany us everywhere – travelling in different countries, in unfamiliar cities and even shopping. Many people now cannot imagine a life without GPS navigation and other modern devices and services to determine the position. But few people have an idea about what is surveying and what is the importance of surveying in our lives. In our article we won't delve into complex scientific theories, and consider what a survey from the point of view of the layman and first take a look at some interesting historical facts about cartography and geodesy.
how it all began?
Geodesy is not a new science. Since ancient times, people studying the surface features of the Earth, its shapes and sizes, and inflicts the results on maps and plans. The first data about geodetic measurements appeared in the Ancient China and Egypt for 6 centuries BC. Geodetic measurements of terrain at that time was important for the construction of irrigation canals and the Grand architectural structures that are still admired for their incredible safety, such as the Great pyramids of Giza or the Great Wall of China. Such complex structures it was impossible to build without knowledge of the topographic conditions of the area – and it is these issues and is engaged in geodesy and cartography.
with the help of geophysical surveys in the third century BC, was quite accurately determined the radius of our planet.
the term "geodesy" appeared in Ancient Greece, which in Greek means "science of planning". The development of geodesy as a science has received full development in the Greek state, and the results of its achievements we can enjoy today: the Parthenon, the temple of Artemis, the Acropolis and other attractions.
With the development of trade and economic relations between the States necessitated the development of geodesy and cartography to determine the location of major trade centres of the Ancient world and determine the distance between them.
In the middle ages, with the emergence of States in Europe, and also with the development of feudal relations, there was a need for a precise definition of the boundaries of the States, fiefs and other land holdings. These questions could decide geodesy and cartography.
the First textbook on geodesy, appeared in the XI century under the authorship of al Biruni, the famous scientist and philosopher of the middle Ages. A significant influence on the development of geodesy had the following discoveries:
- the Famous voyage of Christopher Columbus 1492-1504 years, which, based on ancient maps and daring at the time, assumptions about the rounded shape of the Earth, has made an invaluable contribution to the development of geodesy and cartography, paving the way for future explorers and pioneer. The discovery of the new continent of America was dramatically altered view of the world and was the beginning of a new economic era – the colonial.
- Definitive rounded shape of the Earth was the first voyage around the world of a brave Spanish Explorer Ferdinand Magellan 1519-1522 years. The discovery by Magellan to the properties of our planet, its new lands and oceans gave impetus to the active development of geodesy and cartography, as well as the beginning of the era of Great geographical discoveries.
- the invention of the Italian physicist Galileo first magnifying pipe in 1609 made it possible to radically increase the accuracy of measurements in engineering geodesy and cartography to make a new word in the definition of the distances.
- Law of universal gravitation Isaac Newton (1687) made a significant contribution in the field of geodesy and cartography, proving that the Earth is not just round and spherical, and has a significant priloznosti in the field poles, making geodetic measurements more accurate.
Invaluable contribution brought geodesy and cartography in the development of the mining industry and massive construction since the beginning of the century, global industrialization.
the Most valuable science engineering geodesy began with the emergence and development of private land ownership. Next, we consider what is expressed the importance of engineering geodesy section.
why the need For engineering geodesy section
the Study of the properties of the terrain on private land is involved in engineering geodesy. To understand the importance of engineering geodesy of the site in modern construction, agriculture and other ways of land use, we will answer three most important questions of engineering geodesy.
what kind of questions gives the answer geodetic survey station?
- Precise geodetic dimensions and square footage.
- Geographical coordinates of the site.
the topography of the site.
What is the meaning of engineering surveying of land for future construction?
- Definition of the height differences on the site, influencing the future design of the buildings and engineering structures.
- Definition of the exact coordinates of the future buildings and engineering structures on the site and their further fixation on a geodesic map of the plot of land tenure.
- preparation of technical geodetic documentation of the site development necessary for the further registration of the land in state authorities.
it Should be remembered that Ukraine's legislation requires mandatory clearance of survey documents for individual types of development, particularly industrial purposes, and of course, high-rise residential construction.
What are the benefits of engineering geodesy section?
as for the benefits of engineering geodesy of the site, it is easier to approach from several sides.
- You buy a plot for construction.
if You have a specific development project. To the architectural design was implemented correctly, you must select the most suitable from the point of view of surveying the site for construction. That is to have relevant architectural requirements, the topography and geographical location of the site. On surveying the site plan will show all buildings and underground utilities site.
- You buy land for agricultural activities.
fine location agricultural impossible without a specialist on geodesy, such as farmland rarely have clearly defined bound on the ground. Also geodetic survey of the terrain and the wind rose allows you to determine whether a specific agricultural work on the plot, especially automatic irrigation.
- Are you the owner of a site within the dense private development.
Between private land owners often have disputes over boundaries of territories, especially if the plot is in long-term use. Over the years the owners can forget where the border of their plot to infiltrate foreign territory. The decision of such disputes and is engaged in engineering geodesy. It is sufficient to refer to a specialist in the field of engineering geodesy, and the boundary of Your site will be restored and recorded in geodetic documentation.
- You sell the site.
If You decided to sell Your land, it would be impossible to do without the documents that display geodetic plan of the site and buildings. In addition, if the plot is old, the maintenance of the geodetic data would be an additional benefit to the value of Your site, because geophysical environment taking into account the surrounding anthropogenic and natural factors are constantly changing. Turning to professionals engineering surveying before sale, You will be able to more profitably sell Your site.
the Development of geodesy and cartography in Ukraine
as for the values of geodesy and cartography across the state, the task of the geodetic service of Ukraine is as follows:
- Ensuring the demarcation line of the state.
- Control over the national reference system.
- Creation of geophysical maps of the territory.
- Geodetic survey, the geological resources of the state.
- Maintenance of geodetic information technology base.
the need for the establishment of geodetic public services was highlighted in the resolution of the United Nations in 1974. In the years of Soviet power geodesy and cartography in Ukraine was an important component of the state economy. After 1991, the geodetic service of Ukraine went into decline that was particularly identified with the beginning of regional political turmoil and the outbreak of hostilities in the East of the country. Today, the development of geodesy and cartography in Ukraine has not only economic value, but also has an important contribution to strengthening of defensibility of the country and preservation of its territorial integrity.