The results of the surveys at the request of the customer can be presented in the form of digital or electronic topographic plan. Digital topoplan is a digital terrain model generated in accordance with the laws of cartographic generalization in the adopted plans for the projections, including numbering, the system of coordinates and heights and recorded in the special programs on your PC. Digital topographic plan called electronic topographic plan.
the Digital topographic plans is produced by recording the spatial coordinates area codes and their characteristics in numerical form in the process field topographic and photogrammetric survey of the aerial photographs (digital images) and for graphic originals.
digital topographic plans allows you to automate:
- Preparation of topographic plans at different scales, updating and dissemination (publication);
- solve applied problems using additional information.
Digital topographic plans areas must meet the following requirements:
- be Created by entering information on the nomenclature tablets, covering the area within the topographical map scale 1:5000, 1:2000, 1:1000, 1:500;
- be Created in the coordinate system of 1963 in the projection of the Gauss and the Baltic 1977 datum. In some cases, can be created in a local coordinate system and elevation, which is associated with the state;
- to Ensure the ability of the machine determine the location data of the objects and their characteristics in accordance with conventional signs;
- Enable digital values of quantitative and qualitative characteristics and codes of interest into a Single system of classification and coding of map information;
- to Have a classification of objects and terrain elements, corresponds to the classification adopted for topographic maps of scale 1:5000, 1:2000, 1:1000 and 1:500;
- to Have mean errors in plan and in height up to 1 mm;
- Activate along with data arrays corresponding elements of the content of topographic plans and service-reference information.
Technology to create digital topographic plans provides the following main processes:
- Collect digital information;
- Digital processing;
- the Accumulation and storage;
- Easy editing.
the Collection of digital information occurs during ground-based survey with total station, photogrammetry processing of images, digitized graphics of the originals.
Digital processing of topographic data includes three distinct phases of work.
First stage is the initial processing of the collected varied topographic information and bringing it to a single, unified view. It involves the calculation of flat or spatial coordinates of survey points in a given system, the formation of the shooting information on its belonging to the terrain objects.
Second stage digital processing is the creation of a digital terrain model (DTM). In the basis of digital terrain modeling lies this arrangement results shooting situation and terrain, which allows you to display point modeling in discrete environment topographic information, i.e. for each point of this region to obtain the desired set of topographic data.
Third stage digital processing of topographic data consists in forming on the basis of DSM digital models of all elements of the creation of the plan, i.e. the transformation of DSM in digital and electronic topographic plan. At this stage, the information that is in the DSM, is transformed into topographic in accordance with the specific requirements for the content, scale, elevation, sectional elevation, mathematical foundations, systems, symbols, etc..
Concrete objects are separate structures digital terrain models. This processing includes calibration approximation of the terrain and the interpolation of contour lines, the formation of patterns of symbols, the placement of these signs, automated editing and generalization, stapling and cutting information, communication framework etc..
the Accumulation and storage, DSM, digital topographic plans is in a Bank of digital cartographic data. The data Bank is a system, which includes the accumulated Fund data (databases) and software packages, designed to work with the data on the computer (database management system). The Bank data standardization and accumulation of the necessary information, the conversion obtained at different times and different types of data to a single mind, their coordination, updates and additions. It allows to receive and send the required information, provides a high level of automation accumulation, storage and distribution of data to the user.
The final process of creation of digital topographic maps is mapping plans using your PC and graphic output, i.e. printing on any sheet(from A5 to roll A0).
In all stages of creation of digital topographic plans our specialiste geotop.com.ua is editing. Editing is a system of management by processes of creation digital topographic plans based on requirements that apply to them and to their production.
Editing involves the following processes:
- Drafting and preparation work;
- editing in the process of collecting digital information, digital processing;
- Check and acceptance of completed work stages and finished products.
the Purpose of editing the generated digital topographic plans are:
- Ensuring high quality in order to digital topographic maps full fit for purpose and requirements pertaining to them;
- Efficiency technologies.
Digital topographic plans passed for storage in the database and give the consumer the formats defined by the regulations that are set by Createscenegraph. The main ones are:
- classification System map information;
- Exchange formats of digital topographic data;
- Requirements for completeness, accuracy and reliability of digital topographic plans.