Some sources under the geodetic basis are of topographic materials of scale m 1:500, on a particular area. The materials can be very ancient, on paper and on modern electronic media. On the basis of these shootings are accepted design solutions. The importance of the decisions and their cost and quality of their performance is directly dependent on the quality of geodetic framework.
But often without the old topographic materials is very difficult to raise underground communications. If the cable though you can find a locator, asbestos pipe up to 150 mm in diameter at the moment even modern georadar is very difficult to find and apply for geological engineering.
For the quality topographic our primary sources surveying company meets its name and qualification certificates engineers, surveyors.
Start to design properly. Use only high-quality geodetic basis.
Often, designers are advised to contact the local authorities architecture to just grab a copy of the topographic tablets. This is unacceptable from the point of view that the tablets in your area can be as empty, so poorly drawn 10 years ago. But most often they are lacking altogether. In this case you must try again, make tablets, apply to them all objects and communications. The original vellum be kept by the architect or in the electronic database of geospatial data, the copy with the seal of the architect is provided to the customer to make decisions.
if the customer wishes geodetic base is made at any scale from 1:1 (real-time), to 1:10000. Also in any program and on any source (paper, flash drive, Internet). Cost survey will variruyutsya from 300 UAH. for 1 Ha, depending on the complexity, time and total volume of works.
the CREATION of the TOPOGRAPHY FOR CONSTRUCTION
This is from the point of view of geodetic surveying and professionalism is the most important responsible and extremely precise stage.
Under the creation of topography refers to the consolidation and coordination of geodetic points , removal of the principal axes of the construction in the area. Moreover, the accuracy of the basis for the breakdown and determine, and adjust your coordinates must be at least 5 mm.
With the help of the most modern and high-precision equipment(GPS and engineering total station accuracy class not lower than 5") surveyors is a complex work to define these coordinates. The most common method of creating a geodetic framework today is a combined method - on the court in the most open places are coordinated by 3-4 pips GPS, cheated their coordinates, and then, proceeding from them, are coordinated by the points with an electronic total station (construction mesh desired shape, size and method of fixing).
Also the quality of the layout is determined by the convenience of its use. For example, to the foreman to put one column, it may spend different amounts of time to find a geodesic axis. Yeah so for one to stand theodolite, to another be initialed, and the third still to be checked. Therefore, when the object that we come into contact with superintendents, do callouts axial signs and pegs of intersection of the axes the most convenient to use (metal stakes outside the area of the excavation, the leader of white paint along the contour of the fence, dowels and risks on existing foundations and asphalt). Also, we always divide the excess amount of the stakes for control, to conventional construction roulette you can examine any size on the axes.
a WAY to fix LONG-term GEODETIC points BELOW the DEPTH of SOIL FREEZING.
Each geodetic station has a unique number and entered into a certain directory. The catalogue contains information about the bindings point to the nearest object, Hugo picture, its coordinates, depth, etc. To create topography also includes the fixing of reference points and marks. The brand is called disk cast from metal.
Height levelling of the brand is determined accordingly zero Kronstadt seamark Baltic sea, and is stored in specialized catalogs.
There is another type of geodetic marks and deformation. It is secured on certain parts of a design object (for example, columns). Its main goal is the measurement of the roll or shifting of the Foundation.
All of these tools, terms and techniques aimed at ensuring compliance with the exact geometrical parameters of the constructed structures. Each element has its own tolerances in manufacture and Assembly, and is closely watched by surveyors on construction and industrial sites.