Engineering-geological conditions of the Kiev region highly complex. The area is composed of sedimentary rocks of different age. The most ancient formations are igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Ukrainian crystalline shield, exposed at the day surface in the West region. In the West and South-West they come to the surface in river valleys. Crystalline rocks are covered by younger sedimentary rocks in the depressions, the depressions in various rough terrain. Crystalline massif is characterized by the presence of a complex system of cracks. In places outcrops of ancient rocks are strongly weathered, forming secondary precipitates.
the oldest rocks of the sedimentary complex in the Kiev region are deposits of the Jurassic system: clayey-sandy rocks of green Sandstone with interlayers of marl. Come to the surface locally.
the Rocks of Cretaceous age are exposed in the West, on the coast of the Dnieper. Widely distributed Cenozoic sediments. In the East they lie on the rocks of the Cretaceous system, and in the West on the rocks of the Ukrainian crystalline shield. Represented by Sands and sandstones, clays. The whole area of the common glacial, moraine, loess deposits (sand, clay, boulders). The composition of the boulders was determined that they were brought by glaciers from the Scandinavian Peninsula. Paleogene sediments out on the left Bank of the Dnieper. The Neogene rocks are widely covered by the Ukrainian crystalline shield. Sediments of Quaternary age were mostly formed in a continental setting.
In the Quaternary glacier twice came from Scandinavia, this time formed of deposits left by glaciers and melt water once glaciers. It boulders, sand and clay rocks, sandy loam and loam, unsorted, sand-gravel material (moraine) left in the border part of the glacier. These deposits were left along the banks of the Dnieper. Also allegedly as a result of the activities of the wind on these deposits could have formed paleotologists and Eolian deposits.
the Resulting loess rocks have a yellowish tint, common to seventy percent of the territory of Ukraine. The glaciers left the following landforms: moraine, loess and sander plains. Widespread loess rocks can provide drawdown, in the laboratory determine their drawdown properties.
In the terraces of the rivers deposited alluvial rocks: sand, clay, sandy loam, loam, pebbles and gravel material. Kiev plateau cut up by ravines, landslides. All of this indicates that engineering Geology for construction of Kiev should definitely be done before the construction of a new building or structure.
Geological section in the area of Kiev (top to bottom): Pleistocene Sands of fluvioglacial sediments; Neogene variegated clay; clay Neogene Poltava, Kiev or Paleogene clay; Bucha Paleogene clay. Bearing capacity of sandy-clay soils can be greatly diminished by the moisture and the density decreased. Under the action of loads of sandy soil is well compacted.
Engineering-geological conditions in the vicinity of Kiev is very complex. They are aggravated by anthropogenic human activities. Many examples of buildings and structures, monuments are subjected to deformations, collapse. Happen destructive mudflows. There are historical places at the small square of the difference reaches hundreds of meters. This despite the fact that the third part of the site subject to landslide processes. In the old part of the city, in Pechersk district widespread subsidence of loess sediments and the trend was towards rising ground water. To aggravate the situation also can crash on the water. It is worth noting that on the right Bank is the tectonic fault exists and the probability of dangerous engineering-geological processes. For protection against destructive natural phenomena is a series of engineering geological activities: strengthen the slopes, restore the destruction. It is also important to establish monitoring and forecast of dangerous geotechnical phenomena. Made for this purpose engineering and geologiska surveys for construction Kiev.
Dangerous engineering-geological processes that occur on the territory of Kiev can be associated with endogenous and exogenous factors. To endogenous factors include: faults, tectonic movements, seismic activity. The second group of factors include: erosion, landslides, mudflows, fraying, etc.
Possible causes of dangerous engineering-geological conditions in Kyiv, the researchers referred to as: terrain features, the location of the border faults, particularly the Geology of the area, increased seismic activity. The slopes of the Dnieper river, the right Bank is a dangerous manifestation of landslide processes. All the right coast developed loessial rocks, there are underground voids, sinkholes. Marked displacement of the arrays of ground collapses. In this part developed a loose, fractured rock that can easily be filtered both natural and water leakage as a result of technical accidents.
as a result of engineering-geological research obtained data on the engineering-geological conditions of the area, information about occurring and potentially hazardous geological phenomena, data about soils, underground waters. Based on this information, designers select the Foundation plan for soil stabilization.
Specialists "the ENGINEERING GUILD" will perform all necessary geotechnical studies in Kiev and the Kiev region.