The advanced technologies of today include the construction of solar power plants, which convert solar energy into electricity. Solar radiation, falling on the silicon plates of the batteries is transformed into a constant electric current. The lack of traditional resources for energy supply to the population and industrial facilities raises the "question by edge" about the advantages of solar panels as an inexhaustible, "free source of solar energy consumption." In Ukraine, with its climatic features and geographical location, the development of "unconventional" solar energy, the construction of solar power plants is increasing the pace. In addition to favorable natural conditions, the current law on the use of solar power plants (CEC), the so-called "green tariff", respectively, to which the state acquires electricity from individuals, has a high rate. Therefore, when electricity prices rise every day, solar stations are a good investment and bring in the future considerable income. Despite the high cost of their payback, depending on the capacity is from 5 to 10 years. The service life of solar panels is 30-50 years. At the end of their service life, they are subject to disposal, i.e. recycling. Solar modules have found their application in the industrial sector, agriculture, at the household level. They are used at gas stations, treatment plants, railways.
There are several types of solar power plants:
- autonomous - a battery of solar radiation and transfer of solar energy to the battery. Used in hard-to-reach areas or areas with poor electricity supply
- The network station operates without a battery, directly through a special device, and drops the electricity on a "green tariff" to the public network.
- hybrid - a combination of stand-alone and network stations
Cost of topographical works from 2 500 UAH for the area
At the household level, for the needs of individuals, such panels can be installed on the roof or special fastening devices - farms - on the ground. In this case, one must take into account the shade of the place, the absence of tall trees is necessary, the installation site should receive maximum solar energy, the necessary slope of the site. For large objects, powerful solar panels are required, respectively, a rather large area for their installation, which also takes into account the angle of inclination. For a solar industrial installation, you need:
- permission for the construction of a solar power station;
- carrying out a complex of preparatory measures, including engineering-geodesic and engineering-geological research;
- installation work;
- commissioning, the connection of the solar module to work in the normal mode.
World experience of using solar energy shows that these devices have a future, especially since the reserves of combustible minerals are depleted.
The Guild Engineering company conducts engineering surveys for solar installations. Industrial solar batteries require a large investment, so a full range of engineering and geodetic surveys is needed to eliminate the potential risk of disruption. The complex of engineering research for solar power plants includes:
- geodetic work;
- geological research;
- Land survey.
Solar power station in Kostogryzovo (Kherson region), Energo-Sila LLC. Topographic survey М1:500 30 ha, cable line and drilling of 10 wells.
Geodesy for solar panels implies the transfer of the site into nature. This means that the area for the solar installation should be fixed and geographically bound. The geographic coordinates of the site, its height, and the absence of a difference in elevation are determined. for the arrangement of solar plates there must be a level platform. A complex of geodetic surveys for solar batteries is aimed at obtaining information about the relief situation of the terrain. It forms the basis for designing an object. After the geodesy, a topoplan is compiled for the solar devices.
Geology for solar power plants is necessary for studying the soil of the area under construction. The soil is examined in the laboratory, physical and mechanical parameters are determined. The hydrogeological conditions of the territory, the depth of the aquifer, the geological situation in the tectonic plan, the possibility of karst and landslide phenomena are being studied. The area should be well explored by geology, so that in the future the solar installation was protected from natural cataclysm.
After geodetic and geological surveys, topography for the construction of solar modules is carried out. Surveying for solar power stations is carried out on a large scale, taking into account all physical objects, communications on the site. When surveying for solar panels, the heights, distance, corners of the section are measured. The result of topographic research is the "topoplan". Field measurements are processed by special computer programs, the topplane has digital and paper analogs. High-quality surveying is carried out using high-precision geodetic instruments using modern coordinate systems and satellite data.
Specialists of the Guild Engineering company successfully perform engineering and geodetic research at the pre-project stage of solar power plants of any capacity. Competently compiled reports, graphical applications for geology, topography will help to properly design the arrangement of the solar station.