﻿ Leveling areas for squares ﻿

# Leveling areas for squares

For projects, mapping and topographic plans, full-scale engineering structures, it is important to know the water level height points of terrain. To do this, it carried out geodetic works, they are called - leveling. Leveling is determined by the difference between the height of one surface over the other. Then, knowing the height of the starting point, calculate the water level height and all other points. The company is the Engineering Guild quite successfully conducts a range of activities.

There are several methods to determine the excess points above the surface, differ and the devices used for this purpose. leveling:

1. Leveling areas squared
2. Geometric view, is the horizontal sighting beam (run level);
3. Trigonometric form, is already using inclined sighting beam (device - theodolite);
4. Hydrostatic type, based on the property of a moving fluid (water) in communicating vessels, which is always located on the 1st level;
5. Barometric view - the difference between the heights of points traced by the readings of atmospheric pressure in them;
6. Mechanical type produced by devices that record the terrain profile automatically.
7. radar (used altimeter and the sounders installed on water and aircraft licenciada profile the contours of patent their path automatically).

the Relief character of the land, its situation and size affect the determination of applicable methods of leveling: square square, parallel lines, highways and other. The most common of them is the method of the leveling of the squares. This method is used when carrying out surveying open the parcel on the ground. The surface topography is a combination of uneven areas of the land surface; terrain is a critical factor in General, it shows the nature of the terrain. To know terrain - this means to know the elevations of all points on the terrain.

Mark is the numeric value of its elevation above the level surface, which is taken as the initial reference height. On a topographic map, determine the elevation of each point on the terrain, however, the accuracy of this definition will not be high.

Classification levels According to the state standard levels are divided into highly accurate, precise and technical. They all include levels with a cylindrical level, levels with compensator and levelling rods.

the Principles of geometric leveling It uses 2 ways: from the middle and forward. From the measurement procedures and the accuracy of the calculation of the height of the points are:

1. Goniolimon back in Soviet times, it was the basis of all types of surveys. On the accuracy of Goniolimon divided into I, II, III and IV classes;
2. Technical view - is designed to create a high-altitude survey ground; used in the preparation of projects and construction engineering of buildings and structures. Distinct state from technical leveling is the ability to measure horizontal and inclined sighting beam.

Levelling characters (moves) are fixed on the terrain permanent or temporary signs. They called frames. Rappers are ground and wall. In the construction of geodesy, usually applied with a high accuracy geometric view of leveling, and in special cases applies less precise trigonometric form. In addition to the leveled areas, the company Guild Engineering conducts all kinds nivelirovany associated with surveying.

The leveling of the terrain grid is most relevant for areas in which planned activities aimed at the improvement of the site. For example, it is planned to create the project of the landscape zone. According to the data obtained during the leveling creates a topographic map. The company "Guild Engineering" provides service - the leveling of the terrain on the squares. We offer high quality execution of these works at affordable prices.