Leveling is the process of measuring the excess between the two points of the Earth's surface. The main task of leveling an image of terrain on plans and maps. Also, leveling is an essential process during the construction works.
What types of leveling are there?
For the purpose of leveling can be divided into technical and national. National, in turn, is divided into four classes:
- And class is the exact class leveling. Moves navigate along linear engineering objects. According to the leveling that will be repeated every few years, study of crustal movement and to solve various scientific problems.
- Class II – class II items are based on the points of the network And class. High-rise serves as the rationale for topographical surveys.
- III class – navigate between points of class i And II for thickening network.
- Class IV – used for thickening network. Are tall the rationale for topographical surveys in the mapping and during construction work.
For devices that are used during the leveling work can be divided into:
- Geometric. The most common and accurate view of leveling. Is the horizontal ray of sight with leveling and leveling rods. The accuracy depends on the class and leveling is 0.5 – 10 mm/km is Used to create a State network of high-rise and high-rise substantiation surveys.
- Trigonometric. Runs an angled beam sighting with a theodolite or total station. UPC (mean square error) is 10mm. Measure the vertical angle, and the excess is determined by a special formula. Used in the filming or surveying with topographic-geodetic works with the slope more than 8 degrees.
- Physical leveling. Based on the use of certain physical phenomena. Divided into:
- barometric (based on the properties of pressure difference at different height points of terrain);
- hydrostatic (based on a property of liquids in communicating vessels);
- radio-levelling (due to a reflection beam from the surface to determine the distance);
- sound leveling (due to a reflected sound signal).
- Mechanical. Is performed with the help of leveling-machines.
- Photogrammetrie. Runs after a ground or aerial photography with the help of special devices on stereoscopic pairs of aerial photographs.
For the construction also perform such works as the leveling of the square is the definition of the heights of ground points, which are evenly spaced in a particular area (often the leveling of the squares). Use for shooting relatively flat terrain. The results of this imagery do the layout of the construction site, determine the volume of construction works. Points leveling fix a special nwarning signs (anchors or wall marks).
In using any of the devices perform the leveling?
Consider the instruments for geometric leveling, as it is the most common type that is used for almost any purpose. So, geometric leveling is performed with the help of special devices – levels, which determine the height difference of two points. By design distinguish levels with a cylindrical level with a compensator, laser levels, electronic levels.
Accuracy levels are highly accurate, precise and technical. Digital electronic level – is a device that allows you to quickly leveling automatically and with high precision.The company "Guild Engineering will perform the leveling with the help of modern devices with high precision in accordance with the applicable instructions.